Policies are a shorthand for short-term guidelines for action, found in the realm of governments across scales (local, regional, national and transnational). Given the important connection between policy and broader (longer term) governance options, a specific policy focus is also necessary. For example, since the Paris agreement, the discussion at the UNFCCC shaped climate policy worldwide, and specifically the efforts made by the European Union and its Member States. Understanding the implications of such policy decisions, as well as generating knowledge that contributes to the design of future policy initiatives is part of the core research work at BC3 through its objectives, in particular objectives 2,3 and 4. Policy design and policy evaluation at different scales (local, national, regional and global) across sectors (energy, biodiversity, water, health etc.), including focus on efficiency and equity/distributional aspects of policies (including issues of power relations, gender aspects, political ecology, etc.). (Leads: I. Galarraga and M.J. Sanz).